Classification of Aggregate Based on Texture

Aggregate Classification Based on Texture

Classification of Aggregate Based on Texture

Based on texture, aggregates can be classified into

  1. Smooth Surface Texture Aggregate
  2. Rough Surface Texture Aggregate

Working Stress Method (WSM) and Limit State Method (LSM)

What is Limit State Design and Working Stress Method?

Working Stress Method (WSM) and Limit State Method (LSM)
Fig.1. Classification of Design Methods in Structural Design


Internal Redundancy and External Redundancy

Fig.1 Continuous Indeterminate Bridge Structures-Girders

A small formula to find easily a whether a truss system is determinate or indeterminate is given below.


n = number of members of the truss system
r = number of external restraints or reactions
j = number of joints or nodes,

Truss system is determinate when,
n + r = 2j         eq. (1)
Truss system is Indeterminate when,
n + r > 2j         eq. (2)
Truss system in Unstable when
n + r < 2j          eq. (3)

Internal and External Redundancy

The Internal redundancy is explained in terms of the number of members of the truss or the frame. If I is the degree of internal redundancy, then it is given by
I = m – (2j -r)         eq. (4)

The condition of fewer members, as in eq. (3), will make the structure to be unstable.

The external indeterminacy is explained in terms of the number of external reactions and the equilibrium equations. If the number of reactions is not equal to the condition equilibrium equation, then the structure is externally indeterminate. The External Indeterminacy E is given by the

E = R – r         eq. (5)

Here, E = Degree of External Redundancy
R = Total number of reaction components
r = Total number of condition equations available

The Total Redundancy (T) or the indeterminacy is equal to the sum of external and internal indeterminacies.[ From eq. (4) and eq. (5) ]

T = E + I = [(R – r)] + [m – (2j – r)] 

Construction Aggregate - Classification Based on Density of Aggregate

Fig.1.Construction Aggregate
The Aggregates can be classified based on the density of aggregates as

  1. Normal Weight Aggregate
  2. Heavy Weight Aggregate
  3. Lightweight Aggregate


Bar Bending Schedule of an R.C.C Beam

The preparation of bar bending schedule of an R.C.C beam requires proper understanding of the design and the detailing of the structural member. The calculations involved in the preparation of an R.C.C beam is explained step by step in this article.


Bar Bending Schedules in Construction

In reinforcement detailing of concrete, it is very important to keep an order in which a bar is fixed. The bars that are used are numbered appropriately as per the placement in the drawings and the schedules kept.


CO2CRETE -Sustainable Concrete From Carbon-dioxide

Just Imagine a world where there is no concrete. Concrete is considered as the top most construction material in quantity and application that is used throughout the world. Concrete is everywhere starting from our roads, our homes, bridges to huge buildings and dams. Concrete has become the signature construction material of our planet for the past 200years.

Analysis of Statically Determinate Pin -Jointed Frames


What is Free Body Diagram (FBD) in Structural Analysis ??

Free Body Diagram of A Cable Joint
Fig.1.Free Body Diagram of A Cable Joint

Free body diagram is one of the main aid used for solving static problem in the static analysis of structures.

Free Body Diagram of Structural Elements

The free body diagram is method that can be used in modelling a structure conveniently. FBD in more precise way is a method that we use to conceptualise a structure or its respective elements so that easy analysis of the same can be carried out.

The free body diagram can be defined as a graphical, symbolic and a dematerialised representation of a structure or its elements. This conversion will remove all the connecting pieces.

While drawing a free body diagram, all the physical attributes that are on the structures are removed and symbolised conceptually. 

Features of Free Body Diagram

  1. A simple single line will be used to represent a body or a segment
  2. Connection will be represented by distinct properties.The junction will be conceptualised to a set of forces and moments. These forces are reactions at the connection. 
  3. When comes to nodes, there are internal forces. These are represented by means of external forces. This will include the influence from all the members that is connected to that node.

Consider the figure-2 below. The features explained below can be properly explained with the help of this figure. This is a street lamp. The different stages that are used to evolve the free body diagram of the street lamp is explained below. 

Fig.2.Free Body Diagram of a Street Lamp
1. Initially, the whole system is dematerialised. Here, the lamp is dematerialised into a body that is weighing say 30#. The weight is acting in the direction of gravity from the centre of the body(downwards). Hence a straight line arrow heading downwards is drawn from the centre of the lamp. The system have lamp as the only element, whose weight is known.

2. Next we need to find other forces that will keep this lamp in equilibrium. For this we look at the left end fixed support. Now we identify the forces and moments that will be generated in a fixed support. The fixed support will have a moment, vertical reaction and Horizontal reaction.As here, there is no other horizontal force, the horizontal reaction can be neglected. Hence at the left end fixed support , we have a vertical reaction and a moment.
More about Different Supports & Reaction- Read the article: 
Supports and Reactions in Structural Analysis
3. Next the span distance can be obtained from which the final free body diagram can be drawn.

All those necessary elements of force that is essential to analyse or solve a force system will be included in the free body diagram (FBD).

FBD is not found essential in simple problems. But, when it comes to complex analysis situations, FBD methods is increasingly utilised.

More examples of conversion of load systems in to free body diagrams are explained in the examples below.

Example 1: A Beam Fixed at one end and Free at other end

Fig.3.Free Body Diagram of a Cantilever Beam with a Point load at the end

Example 2: Three Different Structural Systems with same loading and support

Fig.4. Three Different Structural Systems in Real Arrangement
The free body diagram for the above structural systems can be drawn as shown in figure-5 below. Here you can see that the internal structural elements have been removed in the FBD diagram. This is because, the internal arrangement have no influence in determining the support reactions. 
Fig.5.Free Body Diagram of Figure-4

And if the loading geometrics and the supports are the same, the external reaction will also remain the same.


Principle of Statics in Structural Analysis | Conditions of Static Equilibrium |Sign Convention

Principle of Statics in Structural Analysis

Fig.1: Principle of Statics

"Statics is the study of structures that are under equilibrium conditions. Equilibrium of the structure means - all the forces acting on the structure must balance and the net torque must be equal to zero".


Different Types of Paints Used in Construction

Paint is a fluid material that has the ability to spread on a solid surface. This material on drying will form a film. The paint is applied in different layers over the surface called as the primary coat called as a first coat, second, second loaf etc. 



The Top 5 Skills a Civil Engineer or a Structural Engineer Must Have 

The demand and requirement of a civil engineer goes on increasing year by year. As per my research the top skills that will make a engineer ready to attain a good job in construction field is listed below.


Embedded Sensors in Concrete - Real time Strength and Temperature Monitoring

The smart concrete is a solution that is granted for the ready - mix customers who wish to know the strength of the concrete in real - time. This is offered by the SmartRock Manufactures. The system allows the installation of wireless sensors in the concrete. This will help facilitate the real-time monitoring of concrete strength by the customers.

The concrete mix intended for this purpose can be called as Smart Mixes.


Concrete Under Uniaxial Stress| Stress-Strain Curve of Hardened Concrete

Concrete Under Uniaxial Stress
Concrete Under Compression Testing Machine

The short term properties of concrete such as elastic modulus, shear strength, tensile, compressive strength and the stress-strain characteristics are expressed in terms of the uniaxial cube compressive strength of a 15cm x 15cm cube, moist cured for 28 days. This compressive strength is used as the design basis.


Types of Building Structural Systems | Load Transmission Details

For the study of building in a convenient manner the building structural systems can be classified into two types based on the load transmission mechanisms. These are the:

  1. Gravity Load Resisting Systems
  2. Lateral Load Resisting Systems

Both the mentioned systems are complementary and interactive to each other. When behaving as n integrated structural system, they must resist and transmit the gravity and the lateral loads coming on it to the foundation than to the ground below. 

Building Structural Systems

Any structure under consideration is made of both the structural elements and non-structural elements. The structural elements are elements that are load carrying units. For.example columns and beams. Non-structural elements are those that do have a major role in load carrying, these involve false ceilings, partitions, doors etc. 

Consistency Test on Cement

The consistency refers to the flow behavior of fresh concrete. It comes under the category of the rheology of concrete. The normal consistency is determined with the help of a vicat apparatus with a vicat needle. The procedure and the required results for a good quality cement are mentioned. 


Plastering - Requirements, Types and Specifications

Plastering is a work carried out to cover the rough surface of the building elements like a wall and the ceilings by using a coat of plaster so that a smooth and durable surface is obtained.

The process of plastering helps to bring beauty, durability and higher resistance to the rain penetration for the element that is plastered. The term plastering is used to express the internal work. While the exterior work is termed by the name rendering.

The basic requirements of a good plaster, the main objectives of plastering, the types, their specification are explained in the following section.

Effective depth of a Structural Member

Effective depth of a Structural Member

Fig.1. Cross- Section of a R.C.C Beam

Fineness Tests on Cement


Top 10 Kitchen Countertops Ideas

The kitchen is the most vulnerable area in a residence that is prone to dirt. If not properly maintained they give us discomfort as its an area we enter every day. There is a myth that good and beautiful things in a room make us stop not to spoil it and will automatically help us to clean the area.

Such beautiful things must be easy to clean and long-lasting especially in the case of a Kitchen counter top. The kitchen counter top is the area where most of the work handling is carried out.

We will discuss some of the latest and top countertop materials for our kitchen. The life of each countertop, their pros and cons are also explained along with them. 

Effect of Concrete Ingredients on Bleeding of Concrete

The ingredients used in the concrete mix i.e. cement ,sand, aggregates, admixtures and supplementary materials if any, have a great effect on the bleeding of the concrete. Special consideration on the choice and selection of these materials can help to avoid the bleeding effect seen in concrete.


Properties of Fresh Concrete

The knowledge about the property of fresh concrete enables us to study the behavior of concrete in its hardened state and adjust them accordingly in order to obtain the desired results. The different fresh properties of concrete are explained below:

Segregation In Concrete - Types, Causes , Measurement , Prevention

Segregation of concrete can be defined ass the separation of the constituents of the material of concrete. A good concrete is one in which all the ingredients of the concrete are properly distributed to make a homogeneous mixture.



The main factors that affect the workability of concrete are explained briefly in the below section:

1.      Water Content
2.      Mix Proportion
3.      Size of Aggregate
4.      Shape of Aggregate
5.      Surface Texture
6.      Grading
7.      Admixtures
8.      Effect of Environmental Conditions
9.      Effect of Time


Stainless Steel Tying Wire In Construction

The concern about  "how long the building will last" is the main concern for the builders and the architects while they are planning a new structure. Presently the main requirement is that the structures, mainly bridges have to offer desirable performance and durability for a time period of one full century, with a little chance of maintenance that will be cost effective to the community. 

One such step to achieve this extensive time span is the professional installation of stainless steel reinforcing bars. These are called as rebars.

Difference Between Carbon Steel (Mild Steel) And Stainless Steel

Understanding the main difference between the carbon steel and stainless steel is very essential when it comes to making a decision on which steel for a specified construction project. Choice in the grade of steel will come only after the choice between the carbon and stainless steel. In order to facilitate this choice, we will discuss the key difference between carbon steel and stainless based on different properties.

Stainless Steel Reinforcement in Construction - Designation And Standars

Stainless steel the name given to a group of corrosion-resistant steel alloys which contain a minimum of 10.5% chromium.When we refer "stainless steel" it won't simply refer to a single material type. But this will belong to a group of corrosion resistant highly alloyed steel. This type is in contrast to the unalloyed steel which won't show any kind of corrosion and rust forming that is noticeable in a normal environmental condition. 
Fig.1: Stainless Steel Reinforcement
Fig.1: Stainless Steel Reinforcement 


What happens when Sugar is Added to Concrete?

What happens when Sugar is Added to Concrete?

Principle Behind Sugar in Concrete

The Basic Principle followed is the glucose catalytic principle.According to its formula, it belongs to the polyhydroxy group and its surface has strong polarity. This will result in solid-liquid adsorption. Hence the molecular hydroxy group slows the hydration process by hindering the crystal contact and delays tricalcium silicate hydrate reaction.

About Us

This is a center to bring up and collect all bits of knowledge and technologies flourished and flourishing to reach out for those who wish to acquire knowledge in a broader way. I am a structural engineer by profession and would like to share all information I have acquired all these years till date. This site also aims in researching new topics, works on your questionnaires and fill it up with good facts and information.

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