The civil engineering project planning and their implementation will ask for estimation for quantities and costs in order to meet the objective of the project. The cost of the project is estimated by the construction project manager.
Concrete was the structural material that was adopted during 19 century. The only criterion that was focused in order to perform the mix proportioning was the compressive strength. Better the compaction and more the cement, better is the strength.
Equilibrium can be defined as a state of balance achieved by a structure or a state of rest occurred when all the forces are equal and opposite to each other.
What is Structural Equilibrium
In Structural analysis and structural design, we focus more on the magnitude, direction and the point of application of the forces as well as the resultant forces in order to ensure the state of equilibrium.
In more easy words, a structural element will be in equilibrium when it react with an equal and opposite force to that applied on it.
Conditions of Equilibrium
For a rigid body to be in equilibrium, two conditions are: The vector sum of all the forces must be equal to zero. This will ensure translational equilibriumNext, the algebraic sum of all the moments of forces about any point must be equal to zero. This will ensure rotational equilibrium
Newton's Third Law of Action and Equilibrium
As per Newton's third law of motion, for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction alo…
The reinforcement detail of a sloped concrete roof that is supported by a beam of cross section
250 x 500mm is given below. The thickness of the concrete roof used in 200mm. The overhanging distance of the roof is equal to 60cm.
The slab is provided with bottom longitudinal reinforcement and top reinforcement as shown in figure -1 above.
The spalling of concrete is a deterioration seen in structures as a result of advanced corrosion of reinforcement. The stages of spalling of concrete will start with the growth of rust, then cracks and finally push off the part of the concrete cover.
Cracking is a failure that occurs most often in structures. In order to treat the crack, one must know the causes of stresses that have resulted in the formation of cracks. An estimation of these stresses before the construction will help in bringing designs that will have the provision to anticipate for movements that are the reason for cracks. The occurrence of cracks may be in different ways but certain typical modes and characteristics exist for these. The cause of cracks can be clearly understood from the type and the magnitude of the cracking.
Porosity can be defined as the total volume of the overall volume of the pores larger than the gel pores, expressed as a percentage of the overall volume of the cement paste. The effects of pores smaller than 20mm in diameter were found to be negligible.
The factors affecting the strength of concrete are mentioned below. These factors can be either dependent or independent of each other when comes to the concrete strength. Most of the factors are interrelated in certain means. The primary factor that has a higher influence on the strength of the concrete is the mix design factors. Each of them is mentioned and explained in detail one by one.
What is a Flexural Member?
A member of a structure that is subjected to both tension and compression within its depth can be called as a flexural member. As per American Concrete Institute, the following definitions for flexural members are given:
What is PERT
PERT is Program Evaluation and Review Technique that is used in construction and project management field. This is a project network analysis technique that is used to undergo planning and controlling of the projects.
The PERT technique focuses on the time and the cost each activity takes. This will hence influence the resultant time and the cost required for the completion of the entire project. This network analysis technique helps to understand the performance of the work throughout the course of the project.
PERT is an event oriented project scheduling technique. This method of networking will not show any kind of interdependencies between the events mentioned in the network. The network represents a combination of the event. An event is represented in terms of time and resources that are required for the completion of that event. The PERT network does not have a historic chain as in the case of Critical path method (CPM).
Concrete flatwork is a common choice for the installation of garages and basements or any other flat surfaces. This is less expensive when compared with the stone or the brick masonry. This method will provide a variety of options and have good expertise in finishing, thus make the surface aesthetically pleasing.
Building Architecture Towards Seismic Action
The response towards an earthquake force is different for a different building. Some building may stand still for an earthquake but another won't stays stable for the same earthquake. In addition to the way the earthquake force is carried to the region ,it also depends on the