Grading is the representation of the particles size in a sample of aggregates. Good grading of aggregates implies that a sample of aggregate contains all the standard fraction in the required proportions.
Shotcrete and Guniting are important terminologies that are followed in the civil construction. The two methods have proven to be beneficial in the applications of soil stabilization, slope protection in swimming pool construction, fluid tanks, tunnel, in the works relating to concrete repair and many.
The difference between shotcrete and Gunite is actually a matter of concern in some countries of construction alone. Say the American Shotcrete Association(ASA) do not use the word guniting. They are only aware of Shotcrete, that can be carried out in the dry mix and wet mix.
The screed can be defined as a construction element in flooring system that is introduced to bring the floor to the desired thickness or desired height or to make it suitable for a specified flooring. The screed can be also categorized as a rehabilitation method.
The presence of water in cement will result in the hydration process (Exothermic Reaction - Heat Evolution). This reaction will result in hydration products of silicates and aluminates that will bring a hard mass over a period of time. This hard mass can be called as Hydrated Cement Paste (HCP).
In order to solve a indeterminate structure, it is necessary to simplify the structure to a simple system of simply supported beam or to a respective cantilever action system. This is done by cutting sufficient supports and the structural members. Thus the number of redundants is equal to the number of forces and the moments that is required in order to restore the continuity.
The reaction of cement when mixed with water is called as hydration. The main oxide and the Bouges compounds of the cement are the major ingredients which will influence the rate and the mechanism of the cement hydration and hence the hydration products.
The hydration of cement is an exothermic reaction that is carried out when cement comes in contact with water. The reaction will result in several by-products that will contribute to the strength of the concrete or mortar formed.