Steel Column Connected to Concrete Masonry Wall

The construction detail shown in the figure-1 below is a method of construction in hybrid masonry and steel structural system. The example is shown here the connection details of a steel column with a concrete masonry unit (CMU) wall. 

Fig.1. 3D View of Steel Column Connected to CMU Wall



The next main skill you as a civil engineer must acquire is technical knowledge. You must have a base on the basics of civil engineering. Sometimes to be more precise, you have to be thorough on the basic theories behind the post that you are opting for. For example, If applying for 

  1. Site Engineer - Practical Knowledge, Reinforcement and bar bending details, Site management quality, QC and QA, ability to read the drawing
  2. Structural Engineer- Loads on a building, Basic design of structural members, Minimum requirements and provisions for design, Standard Codes Both National and International Codes Used prominently, Drawing basics and detailing
  3. Construction Manager: Scheduling and Estimation, Construction Management Theories, Methods and theories in scheduling


The need for certification and achievements is always a plus point and credit for the civil engineer. Participating in conferences, meetings, discussions, and training will gain achievements through knowledge and through the certificates of proof. This is a proof for how updated and interested you are in your profession.


It is not only enough to gain knowledge and implement, but also necessary to convey to the top levels, the team members what you intend to do and perform. Sometimes, in a team, you might have a better idea of design practice compared with other ideas. IF YOU DON'T KNOW TO COMMUNICATE THE MATTER IS FINISHED!!!

I am not telling about fluent English language skills or grammar. But you need to find a way to convey what your opinion is. This can only be gained by having confidence in talking. Being in a team you have to tell and make people do and perform work and tasks. For this too you need the strength and confidence to express. This is a quality one must gain to attain a wonderful career in his or her life.

Bleeding of Concrete- Types, Causes, Tests. Prevention

The bleeding in concrete is referred as water gain. It is a particular form of segregation. This is a phenomenon in which some of the water from the concrete comes out to the surface of the concrete.The bleeding phenomenon is mainly found in the wet mix.

Stamped Concrete


Construction Estimation in Civil Engineering
Construction Estimation in Civil Engineering
The civil engineering project planning and their implementation will ask for estimation for quantities and costs in order to meet the objective of the project.  The cost of the project is estimated by the construction project manager.


Concrete Mix Design Methods - Methods Used Around World

Concrete was the structural material that was adopted during 19 century. The only criterion that was focused in order to perform the mix proportioning was the compressive strength. Better the compaction and more the cement, better is the strength. 

Some of the early methods that were used for mix design of concrete was based on maximum density and minimum voids. They are mentioned:

Early Methods of Concrete Mix Design

Early methods of Mix design used for concrete mix design are:
  1. Arbitrary Method
  2. Minimum Voids Method
  3. Fuller's Maximum Density Method
  4. Talbot - Richart Method
  5. Fineness Modulus Method

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Recent Methods of Concrete Mix Design

The practice of using early methods made the researched to find out the influence of different parameters that resulted in the development new economical and qualitative methods. Present methods of concrete mix design used around the world are based on the empirical relationships, graphs, charts and from experimental investigations.

Most of the methods used presently will follow the basic principles, but the minor difference exists. Common Concrete mix design methods in vogue are:
  1. ACI Method
  2. USBR Practice
  3. Road Note No.4 Method
  4. British Method
  5. Indian Standard Method


What is Structural Equilibrium? | Translational & Rotational equilibrium

Equilibrium can be defined as a state of balance achieved by a structure or a state of rest occurred when all the forces are equal and opposite to each other.

What is Structural Equilibrium

In Structural analysis and structural design, we focus more on the magnitude, direction and the point of application of the forces as well as the resultant forces in order to ensure the state of equilibrium. 

Fig.1: (a)  The resultant force obtained after resolving must be provided with a reaction equal and opposite for maintaining the equilibrium (b) The moment at the cantilever support is the reaction formed that is equal and opposite to the force formed due to the point load at the end of the beam.

In more easy words, a structural element will be in equilibrium when it react with an equal and opposite force to that applied on it.

Conditions of Equilibrium

For a rigid body to be in equilibrium, two conditions are:

  1. The vector sum of all the forces must be equal to zero. This will ensure translational equilibrium
  2. Next, the algebraic sum of all the moments of forces about any point must be equal to zero. This will ensure rotational equilibrium

Newton's Third Law of Action and Equilibrium

As per Newton's third law of motion, for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction along the same line of action as the original force. This is explained in detail in the below figure-2.

What is Structural Equilibrium? | Translational & Rotational equilibrium

Every element part of a structural system will have reactions that will contribute to the equilibrium of the whole system.

Reinforcement Details of Sloped Concrete Roof

The reinforcement detail of a sloped  concrete roof that is supported by a beam of cross section 
250 x 500mm is given below. The thickness of the concrete roof used in 200mm. The overhanging distance of the roof is equal to 60cm. 

Fig.1: Structural Details of a Reinforced Concrete Sloped Roof

The slab is provided with bottom longitudinal reinforcement and top reinforcement as shown in figure -1above. 


Spalling of Concrete | How to Fix Spalling in Concrete??

The spalling of concrete is a deterioration seen in structures as a result of advanced corrosion of reinforcement. The stages of spalling of concrete will start with the growth of rust, then cracks and finally push off the part of the concrete cover. 

Cracks in Plaster/Masonry Walls - Causes and Repair

Cracking is a failure that occurs most often in structures. In order to treat the crack, one must know the causes of stresses that have resulted in the formation of cracks. An estimation of these stresses before the construction will help in bringing designs that will have the provision to anticipate for movements that are the reason for cracks. The occurrence of cracks may be in different ways but certain typical modes and characteristics exist for these. The cause of cracks can be clearly understood from the type and the magnitude of the cracking.


Relationship between Porosity & Strength of Concrete

Porosity can be defined as the total volume of the overall volume of the pores larger than the gel pores, expressed as a percentage of the overall volume of the cement paste. The effects of pores smaller than 20mm in diameter were found to be negligible.

About Us

This is a center to bring up and collect all bits of knowledge and technologies flourished and flourishing to reach out for those who wish to acquire knowledge in a broader way. I am a structural engineer by profession and would like to share all information I have acquired all these years till date. This site also aims in researching new topics, works on your questionnaires and fill it up with good facts and information.

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